Comparison of the diversity, composition, and host recurrence of xylariaceous endophytes in subtropical, cool temperate, and subboreal regions in Japan
1. Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Otsu, Shiga, Japan
2. Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Otsu, Shiga, Japan
3. Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
4. Graduate School of Environmental and Information Science, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
5. College of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan
6. Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Otsu, Shiga, Japan
The diversity, composition, and host recurrence of endophytic fungi in the Xylariaceae were compared in subtropical (ST), cool temperate (CT), and subboreal forests (SB) in Japan based on the 28S ribosomal DNA sequences from fungal isolates. A total of 610 isolates were obtained from the leaves of 167 tree species in three sites, which were classified into 42 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 99 % similarity level of the 28S rDNA sequence. ST, CT, and SB yielded 31, 13, and three OTUs, respectively. The OTU richness, diversity, and evenness of fungal communities were in the order: ST > CT > SB. The 42 OTUs were assigned to nine genera in the Xylariaceae: Xylaria, Annulohypoxylon, Anthostomella, Biscogniauxia, Nemania, Hypoxylon, Muscodor, Daldinia, and Rosellinia. Xylarioid isolates in the subfamily Xylarioideae outnumbered Hypoxyloid isolates in the subfamily Hypoxyloideae in ST and CT, whereas the opposite was found in SB. Sørensen’s quotient of similarity was generally low between the three sites. Host recurrence of fungal OTUs was evaluated with the degree of specialization of interaction network between xylariaceous endophytes and plant species and compared between the three sites. We found that the networks in the three sites showed a significantly higher degree of specialization than simulated networks, where partners were associated randomly. Permutational multivariate analyses of variance indicated that plant family and leaf trait significantly affected the OTU composition in ST, which can account for the specialization of interaction network and host recurrence of xylariaceous endophytes.